Módulo Ossos

Brow T and Qaqish R. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis: a meta-analytic review. AIDS. 2016; 20:2165-2174

DGS Norma 027/2011

Módulo Coração

Triant V. et al. Cardiovascular Disease and HIV Infection. Curr HIV AIDS Rep. 2013; 10(3):199-206

Zaaqoq A, Khasawneh F, Smalligan R. Cardiovascular complications of HIV-Associated Immune Dysfunction. Cardiology Research and Practice. Volume 2015, Article ID 302638, 8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/302638

Piepoli M, et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice, European Heart Journal. 2016; 37, 2315-2381

Shahbaz S, Manicardi M, Guaraldi G, Raggi P. Cardiovascular Disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk? World J Cardiol. 2015; 7(10):633-644

NHS, Coronary heart disease -treatment. Available: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease

Serrano M, et al. Smoking Cessation and Risk of Myocardial Reinfarction in Coronary Patients: a Nested Case-Control Study. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2003; 56:445-451

So-Armah,K. et al., HIV and cardiovascular disease. Lancet HIV 2020; 7:e279–93

Módulo Rins

Winston J, et al. Kidney Disease in Patients with HIV Infection and AIDS. Clinical Infectious Disease. 2008; 47(11):1449-1457

NHS, Living with chronic kidney disease. Available: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/kidney-disease/living-with/

Operskalski E and Kovacs A. HIV/HCV Co-infection: Pathogenesis, Clinical Complications, Treatment and New Therapeutic Technologies. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2011; 8(1):21-22

European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease varies a lot across Europe! 2016

Maggi P, et al. Renal Complications in HIV Disease: Between Present and Future. AIDS Rev. 2012; 14:37-53

EACS Guidelines version 10.1 October 2020

Wyatt,C.M., Kidney Disease and HIV Infection. Top Antivir Med, 2017; 25(1):13-16

Ser Ativo

NAMaidsmap Exercise available at: aidsmap.com/Exercise/page/1188930 accessed September 2017

NHS Choices Physical Activity Guidelines Available at: nhs.uk/Livewell/fitness/Pages/physical-activity-guidelines-for-adults.aspx access September 2017

Módulo Fumar

European Society of Cardiology. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. 2016

NHS Choices. 10 self-help tips to stop smoking. www.nhs.uk/Livewell/smoking/Pages/Motivateyourself.aspx Last Accessed September 2017

NHS Choices. How much is smoking costing you? Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Tools/Documents/Smoking%20calculator.html. Last accessed September 2017

Módulo Menopausa

Menopause and HIV. Available at: http://www.aidsmap.com/Menopause-and-HIV/page/3117291/. Accessed September 2017

Imai, K. HIV and Menopause: A Systematic Review of the Effects of HIV Infection on Age at Menopause and the Effects of Menopause on Response to Antiretroviral Therapy. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013; 2013: 340309. Published online 2013 Dec 19. doi: 10.1155/2013/340309

Guilherme Amaral Calvet MD, PhD et al. Predictors of early menopause in HIV-infected women: a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Volume 212, Issue 6, June 2015, Pages 765.e1-765.e13

Brown TT and Qaqish RB, Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis: a meta-analytic review; AIDS 2006, 20:2165–2174

NHS Choices. Menopause. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/menopause/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed September 2017.

Eastell, R. Identification and management of osteoporosis in older adults. Medicine in older adults 2016

Módulo Cancro

Vogel, M. et al 2011, Cancer risk in HIV-infected individuals on HAART is largely attributed to oncegenic infections and state of immunocompetence, European Journal of Medical Research, 2011; 16(3): 101–107. Published online 2011 Mar 28. doi: 10.1186/2047-783X-16-3-101 [Accessed September 2o17]

National Cancer Institute. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk, 2011. Available at cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hiv-fact-sheet [Accessed September 2017]

National Cancer Institute. Cancer types. Available at: cancer.gov/types. [Accessed September 2017]

WHO regional office for Europe. Cancer data and statistics. Available at: euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/cancer/data-and-statistics [Accessed September 2017]

Cancer Research UK. Why is early diagnosis important? Available at: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cancer-symptoms/why-is-early-diagnosis-important [Last accessed August 2017]

6 NHS Choices – Glandular Fever. Available at http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Glandular-fever/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed September 2017




Módulo Pulmões

Helleberg, M. et al. Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1 Infected individuals: A nationwide, population-based cohort study, March 2013 CID: 56(5) 727-34

HIV & AIDS Information: Factsheet the lungs. http://www.aidsmap.com/The-lungs/page/1045132/

Mirrakhimov, A. et al. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension IRSN Cardiology. Volume 2013, Article ID 903454






NHS choices. Lung cancer. Available at http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cancer-of-the-lung/Pages/Introduction.aspx


C Dyer. The interaction of ageing and lung disease. Chronic Respiratory Disease 2012; 9(1) 63–67)

How CD4 and viral load are related. http://i-base.info/ttfa/section-2/14-how-cd4-and-viral-load-are-related/) + (HIV & AIDS Information: Factsheet the lungs. http://www.aidsmap.com/The-lungs/page/1045132/

NHS Choices. Chest Infection, Introduction. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Chest-infection-adult/Pages/Introduction.aspx

Módulo Diabetes

Asif M. The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. J Educ Health Promot 2014; 3(1):1. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.127541.

Brown T, Cole S, Li X, et al. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165:1179–1184.

Diabetes UK. Diabetes risk factors, Preventing Type 2 diabetes. Available at: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/Preventing-Type-2-diabetes/Diabetes-risk-factors/ [Accessed: 17 July 2017]

Diabetes UK. Living with diabetes, Guide to Diabetes. Available at: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/Guide-to-diabetes [Accessed: 25 August 2017]

Diabetes UK. Diabetes: The Basics. Available at: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/Preventing-Type-2-diabetes/Diabetes-risk-factors/ [Accessed: 14 July 2017]

Kalra S, Kalra B, Agrawal N, et al. Understanding diabetes in patients with HIV/AIDS. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2011, 3:2.






Noubissi, E.C. , Katte JC , Sobngwi E., Diabetes in HIV. Current Diabetes Reports 2018;18:125


Módulo Fígado





NAMaidsmap, HIV & Aids Informations: Factsheet the Liver. Available at: http://www.aidsmap.com/The-liver/page/1045123/

Aids Info, Side effects of HIV medicines, HIV and Hepatotoxicity, Understanding HIV, facts sheets. Availble at: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/22/67/hiv-and. [Accessed August 2017]

Frith, J et al. Chronic liver disease in an ageing population. Age and Ageing 2009; 38, 1, 11–18

NHS Choices, Hepatitis B/  http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Hepatitis-B/Pages/Introduction.aspx [Accessed August 2017]

NHS Choices, Hepatitis C. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Hepatitis-C/Pages/Introduction.aspx [Accessed August 2017]

NHS Choices , Alcohol-related liver disease. Available at : http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/liver_disease_(alcoholic)/pages/introduction.aspx [Accessed August 2017]

Guaraldi, G et al., Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV-infected patients referred to a metabolic clinic: Prevalence, characteristics, and predictors. Clinical infectious Diseases 2008: 47 250-7


Welzen B. et al., A Review of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV-Infected Patients: The Next Big Thing?. Infect Dis Ther. 2019; 8(1):33-50

Módulo Saúde do Homem - Começar uma família

NAMAidsmap.Conception. Available at http://www.aidsmap.com/Conception/page/1550309/#item1550342 Last accessed September 2017

Truvada SmPC, Summary of product characteristics, 2017 available at: https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/15826. Accessed October 2017

Módulo Saúde da Mulher - Começar uma família

Conception – NAM Aidsmap (Last accessed September 2017) http://www.aidsmap.com/Conception/page/1550309/#item1550342

Thinking about having a baby – Terrence Higgins Trust (Last accessed September 2017) http://www.tht.org.uk/myhiv/Staying-healthy/Parenthood/Thinking-about-having-a-baby

EACS Guidelines 8.2. January 2017

Stop smoking in pregnancy – NHS Choices – http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/smoking-pregnant.aspx

Drinking alcohol whilst pregnant – NHS Choices – http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/alcohol-medicines-drugs-pregnant.aspx

Have a Healthy diet in pregnancy – NHS Choices – http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/pages/healthy-pregnancy-diet.aspx

Why do I need folic acid in pregnancy – NHS Choices – http://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/913.aspx?categoryid=54

Having a baby – NAM AIDSMap http://www.aidsmap.com/v634336406068830000/file/1050017/Having_a_baby_pdf.pdf (last accessed September 2017)

Breastfeeding and post-natal care – Terrence Higgins Trust – http://www.tht.org.uk/myhiv/Staying-healthy/Parenthood/After-the-birth

World Health Organisation. Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants. Recommendations for a public health approach 2010 version, p. 1-106